Sometimes, only one of the two chemical adaptations are found. My project is to characterize endorhizal fungi in Ranunculus from diverse Arctic and Prairie sites. For example, the psychrophilic. Most fungi are thought to have arrived in Antarctica via airborne currents or birds. Home of the Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), a report containing the best available science informed by traditional ecological knowledge on the status and trends of Arctic biodiversity and accompanying policy recommendations for biodiversity conservation. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic (A)micrographic image of Vishniacozyma ellesmerensis (B) colonies of … The identity and taxonomy of species with unclear status (e.g. I boiled them when all the people in our camp were sick. Fungi are pivotal in Arctic terrestrial food-webs. Six of my family members were sick in bed. Arrhenia sp. 9971210 June 1999 to 2002 Project Summary. Many indigenous Arctic fungi are generalists in their ability to colonize and decompose organic substrata, with massive effects on carbon cycling. In recent years, an increasing number of molecular studies have been devoted to studying arctic fungi. St.-Petersburg. Microfungi constitute the most species-rich fungal group in the Arctic, but are only briefly mentioned due to scarcity of knowledge. As opposed to morphological species from boreal and temperate regions that often comprise multiple evolutionary lineages, morphological species and phylogenetic species seem to correspond well in the arctic fungi we analyzed. Learn about the kingdom Protista, which includes all those organisms that are not bacteria, animals, true fungi, or green plants. Many indigenous Arctic fungi are generalists in their ability to colonize and decompose organic substrata, with massive effects on carbon cycling. Such rusts with drastically abbreviated life cycle are called microcyclic Uredinales (1). Few fungi are endemic to the Arctic. THE ARCTIC CARBON BALANCE: Soils Will Hold the Key unsplash-logoTomáš Malík REVIEWER Marcus Griffiths Software Engineer Marcus is a Software Engineer based in Bristol, England. A checklist for Arctic fungi should be compiled. By comparison, all living mammals comprise fewer than 6,400 species . Most of the species are circumpolar and also distributed outside the Arctic. In this regard, we (5) investigate whether the phylogenetic distance between the host plant species reflects which fungi are colonizing specific plant species. soil and in living or dead insect or plant tissues. This is particularly apparent in the high Arctic and in reindeer lichen-dominated vegetation types in the sub-Arctic. Cadophora species are the most frequent Ascomycota, and soft rot is the most prevalent form of decay. Golden coloured blackening waxcap.Photo: Flemming Rune Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. The large potential of fungal analysis of deep sequenced environmental samples will largely benefit by clarified fungal taxonomy. The most widely distributed smut fungi in Greenland were Anthracoidea bigelowii, A. elynae, Microbotryum bistortarum, and M. vinosum. The Arctic Carbon Balance: Soils Will Hold the Key. Masaharu Tsuji is a postdoctoral fellow at Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research, who was not involved in the writing of the book’s chapter on Antarctic fungi. Three volumes on lichens of the greater Sonoran Desert region have been published (111, 20). In the current study, fungal cultures were isolated from feathers (barnacle goose, common eider, and glaucous gull) collected in the Ny-Ålesund region, Svalbard. Except for macrolichens, however, their presence and significance has often been overlooked and poorly appreciated in the Arctic, despite being species rich, abundant and pivotal in carbon and nutrient cycling. ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi, appear to be cosmopolitan species. Bryophytes as environmental indicators, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=80&v=5_rprVa-RY4. form dominant vegetation types in many areas and function as keystone species. This type of symbiotic relationship is seen in all the biomes of the world. As some species are taxonomically complicated and have only recently been described, it is believed that some species that are currently only found in arctic ecosystems may have a wider distribution and could be found in lower alpine environments, e.g. Lactarius lanceolatus, are more common in arctic than alpine sites. Most fungal species associate with living or dead parts of specific vascular plants and will respond directly to changing composition, abundance and location of the vegetation. Facultative marine fungi normally occupy terrestrial or freshwater habitats, but are capable of living or even sporulating in a marine habitat. Of the lichens, 143 species are listed as Arctic endemics, but it is likely that the major part will prove to be synonyms of other species. The content of this side is kindly  provided by several authors, all of whom are acknowledged experts in their respective fields and working in the Arctic environment. Clearly, more research on the taxonomy, phylogenetic diversity and ecological functions of arctic fungi is needed. The tundra is a biome, or a major type of ecological community, characterized by arctic conditions and a relative lack of vegetation. Together they are intimately connected to their environment. Cold-tolerant organisms are called psychrophilic. Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. They are not a taxonomic group, but share a common habitat. The discovery was made by a team of researchers from Japan's National Institute of Polar Research, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Tokyo, Japan, and However, transitions exist between all these groups. Arrhenia salina, are ecologically bound to the arctic zone. The most well-known group of fungi in the Arctic is the lichenized fungi (lichens) because they grow on substrate surfaces and often contribute conspicuously, and colorfully, to Arctic vegetation. Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. At the Arctic LTER site, isotopic measurements indicate that mycorrhizal fungi function similar to this species contribute 60-90% of their plant’s nitrogen. Here we review the knowledge and status of Arctic macroscopic fungi, i.e. While the occurrence, distribution and ecology for lichenized fungi (lichens) are reasonably well known, less is known about non-lichenized fungi (normally just called fungi), including lichenicolous fungi (fungi living on lichens) and in particular, microfungi. Fungi fun! Agaricus aristocratus, a saprotrophic fungus. Blanchette, meanwhile, made another observation: one species of Antarctic fungus appears to be feasting on petroleum spilled from leaky fuel containers that Scott left behind at Cape Evans. Fungi are heterotrophic organisms feeding by osmotrophy. 212 p. 1 fig. Hence, total fungal-species richness in the Arctic may exceed 13,000. Review this book. A collaborative team of researchers from Japan’s National Institute of Polar Research, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies in Tokyo, Japan, and Laval University in Québec, Canada made the discovery. “All species are growing in the same field right next to each other. Still, the Arctic is home to more than 21,000 species: mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi (Arctic Biodiversity Assessment 2013: Species Diversity in the Arctic). Fungi in arctic environments may experience frost nearly every day in the short growing season. Fungi in the Arctic – diversity of species and adaptation to cold climate. Cadophora species are common in Arctic driftwood and they play an important role in decomposition. Approximately 140 species of Agaricales and Aphyllophorales in the Basidiomycetes have been described and reported from arctic tundra in North America. However, a large proportion of them are confined to Arctic-alpine habitats of which the greater part is located within the Arctic and few are true Arctic endemics. Lead Authors:  Anders Dahlberg and Helga Bültmann, Contributing Authors: Cathy L. Cripps, Guðríður Gyða Eyjólfsdóttir, Gro Gulden, Hörður Kristinsson and Mikhail Zhurbenko. Long-term monitoring within representative Arctic habitats would enable us to document and follow fungal species shifts over time. However, over time the effects of climate change and subsequently transformed vegetation will have profound effects on the distribution and composition of fungi and consequently also their ecosystem functions. Therefore, we judge that these changes will only rarely affect their conservation status in the immediate future. The present volume contains species photographed in the Swiss Alps. Soil-dwelling fungi benefit from this during the cold winter. Of 1971 lichen species and associated fungi reported from the Sonoran Desert, about 25% studied since 1990 are new. The fungi have largely a cryptic life form and have therefore not been exhaustively inventoried. Explore the diverse groups of protist species in the Arctic, including the well-known group of algae species. Fungi from arthropod and invertebrate animals Most are typical arctic-alpine fungi at their furthest southern extent in NA. The arctic fox instinctively knows to follow the caribou since the caribou helps the fox get its food as well by unintentionally digging up subnivean mammals as it finds its own food to eat. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)Borgir, Nordurslod, 600 Akureyri, IcelandP: (+354) 462-3350, E:caff [AT] caff [DOT] isemailProtector.addCloakedMailto("ep_e3a37a8b", 1); © 2020 Arctic biodiversity, Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF) - Terms and Conditions, Diversity of Arctic lichens and lichenicolous fungi, Golden coloured blackening waxcap.Photo: Flemming Rune. Fungi produce different kinds of proteins and alcohols inside their hyphae to prevent their cells from freezing. Conservation status should be assessed for Arctic lichens and fungi, preferentially at both the Arctic and global scales. Enhanced monitoring and functional research would enable more accurate prediction of how fungal diversity and the ecosystem functions of fungi will develop with climate change. Scientists have identified about 120,000 species of fungi so far, but estimate there are as many as 3.3 million species in all. Most fungi in the arctic environment also occur in alpine ecosystems at lower latitudes. In the Arctic Ocean, there are very few large aquatic plants. • Most sequences from the few Basidiomycota found in Arctic driftwood do not match known species. Because lichens are often a major component of forage … Among the study plant species, Alpine bistort, Mountain avens, and Arctic willows associate with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Gardes & Dahlberg, 1996), Purple saxifrage with both arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and with ectomycorrhizal fungi (Fujimura & Egger, 2012), and Moss champion with both ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (Kohn & Stasovski, 1990) and ectomycorrhizal fungi (Read & Haselwandter, 1981). Aalasi Joamie in Joamie et al. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic. Several sequence types, particularly the ancestral ones, were distributed over multiple continents, suggesting effective dispersal. THE ARCTIC CARBON BALANCE: Soils Will Hold the Key unsplash-logoTomáš Malík REVIEWER Marcus Griffiths Software Engineer Marcus is a Software Engineer based in Bristol, England. Local species richness is typically high and can be very high, e.g. Keep up-to-date with NHBS products, news and offers They are long and you pull them out. Similarly, terricolous lichen communities will be affected by increased competition from vascular plants. Host index, and 280 bibliographic references are provided. Rhytisma salicina produce black (often swollen and glossy) spots on leaves of Salix. The knowledge of distribution and ecology for all fungi, but in particularly for non-lichenized fungi, should be improved. Check-list. Fungi growing on arctic seashores, e.g. This is a true example of symbiotic relationships. by Forest-Ecology | July 2, 2019 | Current Research, Ecology, Fungi. The Arctic is a hostile environment, yet the species on this Arctic animals list are able to live either on the frozen tundra or in the icy waters that surround the North Pole. High intraspecific diversity and long-range dispersal in arctic fungi: Despite the high genetic diversity observed, we found no phylogeographic structure in the three arctic species examined (L. umbellifera, F. cucullata, and F. nivalis), indicating high levels of gene flow across the Arctic. Exobasidium, attack plants from the heather family (Ericaceae) and deform and discolour the leaves (pale yellow to red). Created by learningarcticbiology in WordPress using Elementor and Astra theme, Another adaptation to low temperatures is the chemical composition of the cell walls of Arctic fungi. It is estimated that 1.5 million species of fungi exist on earth. Saturated lipids and ergosterol harden in low temperatures, which make fungal cells stiff and brittle in cold conditions. Effects of climate change on diversity of Arctic fungi are predicted to be gradual but radical over time, due to changes in vascular plant flora and vegetation, especially the expansion of shrubs. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. Lichen species are an important component of the many biological communities across Arctic Alaska. Further, we wanted to (4) assess whether the root-associated fungi are host generalist, as is typically the case for arctic ECM fungi, or whether they show some level of host specificity. Distributional and ecological knowledge is reasonably good for macrolichens but sparser for fungi and microlichens. Flora / Fauna. Bryoglossum gracile; Cantharellula umbonata Zygomycetes; Ascomycetes; Basidiomycetes. Customer Reviews. Many of the Arctic animals on this list have special adaptations that enable them to cope with the extreme conditions of the far north. Climate The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Widespread and conspicuous parasitising fungi in the Arctic are Rhytisma salicina (Ascomycota) and the genus Exobasidium (Basidiomycota). Edible mushrooms are the fleshy and edible fruit bodies of several species of macrofungi (fungi which bear fruiting structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye).They can appear either below ground or above ground where they may be picked by hand.Edibility may be defined by criteria that include absence of poisonous effects on humans and desirable taste and aroma. The overwhelming majority of these remain to be discovered, a mere five percent of them are known to science. Less than 2-3% of species are thought to be endemic. I waited for them to cool down and I gave each sick person some to drink. National Science Foundation Grant No. The next day, they were all up and about. In other words, there appear to be no genetic isolation among populations inhabiting different geographic areas. Reflection: The Arctic Ice caps are melting which can be very detrimental because the water levels could raise to a height that could hurt civilization. They are acknowledged in connection with the photographs. Another adaptation to low temperatures is the chemical composition of the cell walls of Arctic fungi. I want to tell you something I learned about plants from the late Kakkik that I tried myself. 2009). The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. Arctic driftwood can provide unique insight into the diversity of colonizing and decaying fungi at the interface of extremely cold terrestrial and marine environments. Please browse the fungal classes below to learn about different species of Arctic fungi! Two main vegetation types, dry heath tundra and moist tussock tundra are found throughout the region; dry heath tundra is dominated by Dryas octopetala, Salix polaris, Vaccinium species and fruticose lichens, while the moist tussock tundra is dominated by Betula nana, Salix pulchra and the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum (Walker et al. Specialise in a few fungal types, such as colourful waxcaps, coral fungi or boletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sampling site. Lichens are a conspicuous and colorful component of Alaska’s vegetation and one of the most species-rich groups of organisms to inhabit the Arctic. Laboratory studies have shown that arctic fungi can survive temperatures below -100 ºC if they are surrounded by anti-freeze substances. One challenge for organisms in cold environments is the formation of ice crystals. Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. Lactarius lanceolatus, are more common in arctic than alpine sites. Arctic animals and plants have adapted to cold and dark in many ways. The following actions would enable a more thorough analysis of the status and trends of Arctic fungi. (Mucoromycota) showed absence of detectable ergosterol, but presence of the unsaturated stearidonic acid. Most species were found in the High Arctic zone (29 species), while from the Low Arctic zone and the Subarctic zone, 26 and 19 species were known, respectively. Hence, total … 1) Assess phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity of selected genera of arctic fungi Fungi represent one of the largest groups of living organisms, with an estimated >95% species still unknown. Many species are shared with areas of the Arctic. Two new species of fungi have made an appearance in a rapidly melting glacier on Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic, just west of Greenland. In the Arctic, some specialised soil fungi can grow in temperatures down to -2 ºC and tolerate heavy drought stress. poorly known fungi and potentially endemic lichens) should be critically examined. Luis N. Morgado, József Geml, Modifications of Community Structure in Ectomycorrhizal Arctic Fungi as a Consequence of Global Warming, Mushrooms, Humans and Nature in a Changing World, 10.1007/978-3-030-37378-8, (451-472), (2020). Agaricus aristocratus, a saprotrophic fungus. 2006 Can J Bot 84: 1094-1100) these fungi are abundant in High Arctic Ranunculus. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. My mother had been admitted to the hospital and we were waiting for her return in August. About 444 species of marine fungi have been described, including seven genera and ten species of basidiomycetes, and 177 g… Funding. Russian Arctic Fungi. Reindeer lichens Cladonia subgenus Cladina spp. [Gro Gulden; Kolbjørn Mohn Jenssen; Jens Stordal] -- The ecology and taxonomy of arctic and alpine fungi occurring in Europe. As some species are taxonomically complicated and have only recently been described, it is believed that some species that are currently only found in arctic ecosystems may have a wider distribution and could be found in lower alpine environments, e.g. From the preface: This book summarizes existing data on all fungi known to occur in the Russian Arctic to 1999. Lichens provide an important food source for caribou in the winter. Arctic soil fungi are capable of growth at sub-zero temperatures, melanized forms are frequent, host specificity is low and there is evidence that community composition alters under experimental warming. They contain more unsaturated lipids than fungi farther south and lower amounts of ergosterol (the fungal equivalent to cholesterol). A list of Arctic permafrost fungi (~80 species) that were detected by using cultural methods is presented. 1999). visible sporocarps of fungi, and lichens. They tend to grow in swampy areas. Arctic, we had to approach this task in a different way from what was done in the case of vascular plants. Many varieties of fungi can thrive in this type of environment, since they survive by decomposing organic remains and can grow in the absence of sunlight. Fungi are one of the most species-rich groups of organisms in the Arctic. To date, we have discovered over 150 species of Agaricales from the Canadian border south into the Rocky Mountains, and above treeline (3300 m at 45°N, 3600 m at 38°N). For example, the psychrophilic Mortierella elongata (Mucoromycota) showed absence of detectable ergosterol, but presence of the unsaturated stearidonic acid. Saturated lipids and ergosterol harden in low temperatures, which make fungal cells stiff and brittle in cold conditions. Flora / Fauna. Globally, approximately 100 000 species of fungi have been described, but their true diversity may be as high as 5 million species (Blackwell 2011). Arctic and Alpine Fungi Volume 3: Agarics of the Swiss Alps . As for other inconspicuous organism groups, it is obviously desirable to gain a better knowledge of the identity, occurrence and functions of fungal species, and particularly the large number of unrecorded species (mainly microfungi). Parasitic species have been found in ecological situations different from the one they are associated with elsewhere, such as infecting a different type of host. Scientists have discovered two new species of fungi in the Canadian Arctic, just West of Greenland. Report unusual finds to your local records group; find a list here. Fungi are an extraordinary group of organisms. This project will document the diversity of fleshy fungi (Agaricales, Basidiomycota) in the alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, and is the first extensive survey of arctic-alpine mushrooms in … Scientists identify two new species of fungi in retreating Arctic glacier. Some ectomycorrhizal fungi, e.g. Which of the following best explains how introducing an invasive plant species to an ecosystem would affect the ecosystem over a long period of time? by Forest-Ecology | July 2, 2019 | Current Research, Ecology, Fungi. Two new species of fungi isolated from sediments and soil in the Canadian Arctic. Future challenges are to determine the drivers of fungal diversity, whether or … All four classes of Fungi occur in the Arctic and Subarctic, probably in approximately the same proportion as they occur in warmer climates, but the number of species tends to be smaller than in more temperate regions. Abstract. The known number of fungal species in the Arctic is presently about 4,350, of which 2,600 are macrofungi and 1,750 are lichens, the rest are microfungi. All terrestrial ecosystems have a high, and largely unknown, species richness of fungi. Although not enough work has been done to provide an accurate species count, it is known that hundreds of different fungal species occur in tundra habitats. The conservation status of Arctic fungi is predicted to scarcely be affected within the next decades but greatly changed over the long term. Mycorrhizal fungi have seldom been reported from plants growing on wet soils, however our lab showed (Allen et al. Climate. My sister’s late husband used to know about nirnait, caribou lichen, the plants that caribou eat. You’re talking about between 25 to 30 species,” says Yazbek. Pictures were kindly contributed by many individuals. In Arctic and alpine tundras, the number of species of plants and animals is usually small when compared with other regions, yet the number of individuals per species is often high. In addition, they use these substances to thaw the soil around them for mycelium growth and uptake of nutrition. All photos, graphics and text on these pages are Copyright © 2018-2020 – learningarcticbiology.info or the respective photographers and authors. Sometimes, only one of the two chemical adaptations are found. The oldest fungus ever found: Billion-year-old fossilized fungi preserved in shales from Arctic Canada push the record back by over 400 million years Tiny fossils of fungi … [Reports 1750 fungi species. They contain more unsaturated lipids than fungi farther south and lower amounts of ergosterol (the fungal equivalent to cholesterol). For each section/post/page the name of the authors is presented in connection with the material. Get this from a library! Of these about 30% are ectomycorrhizal associates of 14 species and two varieties of Salix, in addition to Dryas integrifolia, Arctostaphylos rubra, and Cassiope tetragona. The Arctic is home to more than 21,000 known species of highly cold-adapted mammals, birds, fish, invertebrates, plants and fungi and microbes. In Russian, English summary.]. The dominant fungi, and particularly ectomycorrhizal-forming fungi, appear to be cosmopolitan species. The unavoidable greening of the Arctic will steadily and significantly affect the distribution and abundance of fungi, as habitat conditions gradually transform the distribution and abundance of plants. Given favorable weather conditions, some may produce short-lived, sometimes prominent, sporocarps (mushrooms), but predominantly, and for many species exclusively, they exist as cryptic and hidden mycelia in e.g. However, this observation is only of theoretical interest, since in most arctic areas the ground is covered by insulating snow, preventing the ground from reaching temperatures as low as the air temperatures above. For example, many aquatic hyphomycetous species, that have been traditionally considered saprotrophic, have been isolated from surface‐sterilized roots suggesting that these fungi may be root endophytes as well (Sati et al. Recently, patterns in Arctic lichen community composition have received attention in response to expanding shrub communities and increasing fire frequency and extent, both of which are linked to declines in lichen abundance. Efforts to analyze the effects of slowly shifting fungal communities on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and carbon fluxes are needed. Even with these caveats, present knowledge largely enables us to predict the future of Arctic fungi. Obligate marine fungi grow exclusively in the marine habitat while wholly or sporadically submerged in sea water. I boiled some caribou lichen in a pot for a long time, following my brother in-law’s advice. Among the rust fungi, where most species in the Tem– perate Zone ordinarily pass through several generations of spore formation, there is a tendency to abbreviate this complicated life cycle by omitting some of the spore forms. The known number of fungal species in the Arctic is presently about 4,350, of which 2,600 are macrofungi and 1,750 are lichens, the rest are microfungi. Despite feather fungi being an important component of the Arctic fungal flora, their ecological role and diversity are not fully known. The number of fungi is generally small, which is in contrast with their pronounced species diversity. He told me to stop boiling them when the water turned black. Order Agaricales. They constitute a large portion of Arctic biodiversity and are essential in the functioning of Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. The remaining part of the fungi is in general terms just called fungi and will here be referred to as fungi. An evaluation of the conservation status of Arctic fungi is feasible, and the mapping of rare and endemic species is necessary. Fungi are the most species rich group of organisms after insects. Cadophora species are the most frequent Ascomycota, and soft rot is the most prevalent form of decay. The current review encompasses studies of mycorrhizal and filamentous decomposer fungi plus yeasts from cold Arctic and Antarctic environments, therefore including basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and microfungi (but not lichenized fungi). Climate The temperatures in the Arctic continue to rise at more than twice the global annual average. 2001. The biota and its adaptations. The most widely distributed smut fungi in Greenland were Anthracoidea bigelowii, A. elynae, Microbotryum bistortarum, and M. vinosum. Some of the species are specifically boreal or arctic in their distribution and adaptation. Their ecology can be divided into saprotrophs, parasites and mutualists. For each section/post/page the name of the authors is, Focus Area: Archipelagoes of the Barents Sea, 9. January 16, 2019 National Institute of Polar Research . Before picking out and identifying the rare taxa, it was a prerequisite first to compile a total list of all species in the Arctic, and then filter out a preliminary list of the rare and endemic species… Future research is warranted with a focus … Technique Could be Applied to All Nitrogen-Poor Ecosystems. I was the only one up and about when we were living in a fishing camp. Arctic and Alpine fungi. The changing vegetation will transform the fungal diversity and thereby affect ecosystem services provided by fungi, such as plant’s uptake of nutrients, decomposition and long-term carbon sequestration in soil, although unknown how and to what degree. Series: Arctic and Alpine Fungi Volume: 3. In tundra, parasites affects various mammalian species including reindeer, Arctic foxes, musk oxen, Arctic wolves, etc. Arctic soil fungi are capable of growth at sub-zero temperatures, melanized forms are frequent, host specificity is low and there is evidence that community composition alters under experimental warming. Mycorrhizal, saprotrophic and pathogenic fungi drive nutrient and energy cycling, and lichens are important for primary production. Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. Very few are restricted to the arctic areas. Most species were found in the High Arctic zone (29 species), while from the Low Arctic zone and the Subarctic zone, 26 and 19 species … Long-term funding is necessary to maintain and train Arctic specialists in mycology and lichenology and to ensure research and monitoring to take place.
2020 arctic fungi species